Textual criticism can explain some of the differences people notice between their English translations, such as the omission of “who walk not after the flesh, but after the Spirit” in the NIV of Romans 8:1 (compare Romans 8:1 in the KJV). However, many variations in translations are not text critical in nature; instead, they reflect the translation techniques and the decisions of translation committees. Understanding the differences between text-critical issues and translation issues is an important first step in the…